Dr. K S Murthy

Dr. K S Murthy

Born April 7th, 1951 at Hyderabad

Currently
Provost at ITM Vocational University, Vadodara

Brief Bio-note

Dr. K. S. Murthy is currently Provost (Vice Chancellor designate), ITM Vocational University. In this capacity he is right now fully involved in creating shared value in higher and vocational education ecosystem. Prior to this, being the Director of ITM Institute of Financial Markets, Dr Murthy has visited USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Hong-Kong and Netherlands to represent the Institute and develop linkages with international institutions. In association with International Capital Market Association Centre, University of Reading conducted a World Bank aided training course on Credit Risk and Market Risk in 2007.

He has presented a poster titled “Creating Shared Value: Moving beyond trade off” at Going Global 2012 Higher Education conference held in March2012. He is also active in promoting financial education with affiliation from OECD International Network for Financial Education and as an accredited Continuous Education Provider of National Securities Market in India

As an accredited Education provider of Financial Planning Standard Board of India, Dr Kotipali conducted training in individual financial planning and developed a Business Simulation Lab to facilitate the Students’ experience in trading on Stock and Commodity exchanges on live feeds in a simulated environment. This is the first of its kind in India.
Dr Kotipali has a wealth of varied experience; twenty years as a senior banker, eleven years in financial markets – he has been involved with facademia for the past ten years. His academic achievements include a PhD, titled ‘A Study of Capital Market Reforms and Their Impact On Retail Investors’ Behaviour In India’; M.B.A in Finance, M.Sc (Agri)-Gold Medal, Certified Associate of Indian Institute of Bankers and PG Diploma in Securities Law.”

Identified emerging challenges and taken initiative in establishing Equity Derivative Clearing, Commodity clearing , E-Stamping departments in SHCIL and led them successfully. . With the knowledge gained in the BFSI sector launched successfully learning platforms at ITM Institute of Finacial Markets and ITM Vocational University in a record time.

Certificate of appreciation issued by Syndicate Agricultural Foundation and Certificate of Merit for organising extension education programs in representing Syndicate Bank in rural India are: Vissannapeta and Kanumolu Villages, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh Covering Bio gas plants, Poultry faming and Mango orchards (1982)

Total 32 years of direct experience in financial sector and latest 10 years of experience in ITM Group of Institutions with proven track record of leadership position heading ITM Institute of Financial Markets as its Director.

The qualifications in Management, Banking, Insurance, Financial Services, Agriculture and Rural Development are value additions for the knowledge base to evolve structured programs and Vocational programs in the Ecosystem of Education sector in India

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The Vagaries & Victories of Being a Visionary

State your Openness to
New Information

Continuous professional education and constant up gradation of knowledge base over the years covering diverse areas such as, Agriculture, Management, Finance and Banking, Insurance and Securities Markets bears testimony to the fact that I am open to acquire new knowledge and information.

1) Earlier part of my Banking career, conducted awareness programs on the then prevailing scientific developments and technology in the rural development and alternate source of energy, which were well received by the rural households. Empowered the rural house holds on sustainable development, besides extending need based timely credit facilities. All these development activities were well appreciated by rural people, media and finally obtained certification of appreciation from Syndicate Agricultural Foundation.

2) In the latter part of my Banking career, while gaining knowledge from my Management and Banking studies kept abreast with the latest developments in Banking sector and applied the knowledge in developing Bank branch at Vishakhapatnam from dormant branch to a Model Branch as per RBI norms with in a span of 5 years. These efforts were recognized and got Excellent Manager Award.

3) In my subsequent career in Stock Holding Corporation of India Ltd. (SHCIL) during the period 1995-2006, kept pace with the market developments in the Securities Market and brought in proper systems and procedures in the Custodial operations and incorporated checks and balances to mitigate risks in physical environment and there by reduced the Insurance premium year on year to SHCIL. During the said period the Securities market was in transition from Physical market to Electronic market and brought in new Institutions like Depositories, Instruments like Derivatives, reduced settlement cycles, Exchange norms and margins etc. The consequent frequent market related changes and improvements were well received on real time basis by me to set up retail depository services, Equity Derivative clearing and Commodity Derivative clearing platforms with built in risk containment measures. These platforms were robust enough to with stand payment crisis in the market post general elections, scams, floods etc. Further headed e-stamping project and built in systems and procedures customized to the requirements of respective State Governments. Now most of the State Governments are availing these services after Stamp paper scam.

I was a part of developments in Banking and Capital market through out my career and accepted the challenges and thus instrumental in creating robust platforms, systems and procedure to withstand market failures over the years. The learning is continuous.

 

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Instances of Your Wild Weird Wallowed Imaginations
which translated into a Dominant Reality

1) Conceptualized simulated securities trading platform and set up Business Simulation Lab at ITM Business School, New Mumbai in the year 2005. The platform developed with NSEIT incorporating the front end trading platform and backend clearing and settlement system, which is first of its kind in India. This facilitated experiential learning to the Management Students. Later the same is replicated at leading IIMs, ISB and other leading Business School.

2) Faculty Development in Securities Markets and Investment Banking by recruiting six fresh candidates from the market in the year 2006 and deputing them to ICMA Centre, University of Reading, UK for one year Post Graduation Program. On return they have localized their learning with Indian Securities Market.
They became the core faculty for Financial Market program and with the ITM group for long time imparting Knowledge to the Students. Even now Four of them are still with ITM Group and three moved with me to ITM Vocational University.

3) Financial literacy was identified as a missing link in Financial Inclusion campaign in the year 2007 and sensitized the Management students on this and made them to conduct awareness programs to Rural artisans who display their products in a Mela held at Urban Haat, New Mumbai. This program empowered the artisans with the knowledge on Banking facilities, Insurance, Government programs; logistics and supply chain and Student in turn learnt skills and get to know how the real world problems in the Villages are being handled.

 

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Your Sensitivity Index
which helped you to acquire much extra information

1) Having involved directly in Financial Markets over thirty years and being associated with the developments that were taking place in the market place visualized the shortage of Manpower with the required skill sets to handle the changes taken place consequent to the technological interventions and regulatory prescriptions, decided to move to ITM Institute of Financial Markets (ITM-IFM) in the year 2006 to structure sector specific programs on Financial Markets. With this background, developed AICTE approved Programs, such as Two years Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Financial Markets) for fresh under graduates and One year Executive Post Graduate Diploma in Management (Corporate Finance and Investment Banking) for the working executives. ITM-IFM was pioneer to offer such courses in India. Subsequently others followed suit.

2) Capital Markets regulations and Risk Management area were undergoing rapid changes and there was need to upgrade the knowledge of working Processionals’. As such conducted short-term program with the association of FINRA, ICMA Centre-University of Reading for Security Market Professionals. Similarly conducted World Bank aided workshop on Credit Risk and Market Risk in association with ICM and PRIMA both at Mumbai and Hyderabad for Bank Officials. IIMs and ISB could not take up this offer from World Bank.

3) Trading on Simulated Securities was developed for Management Students was utilized by National Institute of Securities Market for imparting training to Income tax officials, New Recruits of SEBI, ICICI group recruits etc.

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Examples of Your Predictions &
Striving for Accomplishing the same

ITM Vocational University is first of its kind in India faced the challenge of integrating skill component in higher education space since its inception in the year 2014. With the rich experience of successfully launch of sector specific programs in Financial Market meeting the skill gaps and ensuring employability, facilitated to conceptualize model in higher education space for other sectors as well.

In the absence of clear guidelines on Vocational Education from UGC, taking cue from National Skill Qualification Framework conceptualized the programs at NSQF level 5 and above and structured all the programs by keeping proper balance between skill component and general education component in the course structure. In the absence of regular programs matching to NSQF level 4 and below, structured Bridge courses to meeting the missing components of NSQF to merge with educational pathway beyond level-5 of NSQF. Further programs at various levels also structured to ensure continuous professional education to the existing workforce.

Further educational pathways were also created to the working ITI Certificate/Diploma holders by structuring suitable programs matching to NSQF norms. While the programs developed by other Institutes and NSDC approved training provider are finding it difficult to map the course structure to NSQF level, ITM VU is ready with the model to report compliance as stipulated by NSQF well ahead of the timeframe envisaged by Government of India.

 

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The Persistence of Pursuing

All through my career pursuing the given task in any given project is a common approach to attain the goal despite all restraints and constraints. In my Banking career in the area of Rural Development and Branch services extended excellent Customer service despite the credit restrictions and other monetary restrictions. In my subsequent career in back office operations in SHCIL undertaken the projects like, Equity derivative clearing system and E-Stamping Project by creating robust platforms which withstood payment crisis defaults and even now these projects are source of major revenue streams for SHCIL

Even in the academic administration in ITM group, both at ITM Institute of Financial Markets and ITM Vocational University taken the challenging job of creating new Academic Programs and launching them successfully against all odds, like acceptance of the programs by Students, and parents against the competition of existing time tested programs and shown year on year improvements in admissions and quality of delivery as well. Waded through unclear regulatory environment and finally obtained approval for PGDM-(Financial Markets) from the regulator by constant pursuing. In the process created a brand value for ITM Institute of Financial Markets.

Right now at ITM Vocational University integrating skill component in the Higher Education Space, which is once again a challenging job to meet both UGC and NSDC norms. With in two years launched all the programs matching to the level-5 above of NSQF. Incorporated unique pedagogy to ensure overall development of the Students by encouraging Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship. The impact of these interventions is visible with the performance of our students at national level competitions. The work is in progress and it may take a couple of years to show greater good.

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The Cauldron of Conviction

 

I have taken calculated risk at each stage of my career shifts, starting from Rural Development, Banking operations, Capital Market operations, Financial Markets education to Vocational training in Higher Education space. All shifts are for worthy cause like learning the new areas where gaps existed for improvement. The jobs handled at each shift were new projects, where no prior systems, procedures and regulations existed. All those evolved while the projects were in progress. As such all the jobs were challenging prone to business risk and regulator risk all the time. Enjoyed each shift with new learning with highly motivated team. The team is taken in to confidence at each stage and given ownership to the tasks handled by the team. Encouraged creative ideas and promoted innovation among the team members.

Further all stakeholders are taken in to confidence and created shared value in the ecosystem. The success attained in Banking operations, Capital Market operations, Financial Market education bears testimony to the fact that fire of conviction was burning all through my career progression. The fire of same conviction is still burning at ITM Vocational University by holding the position of Provost. Even at ITM Vocational University structured the Programs while the regulatory ambiguity and overlap still exist in higher education space. However two years down the line we have got highly motivated team and students who have made their mark at state level and Country level competitions. We await two more years to attain peak of success at ITM Vocational University. In the meanwhile our mission of creating shared value in the higher education space is on.

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What’s your personal vision
for the Institution you are heading currently?

 

Ever since the inception of the ITM Vocational University in the year 2014 ,being the Provost of the University, continuously striving to bring Innovation in Education to educate for Innovation. In the process, while integrating skill training in the Higher education space, ITMVU recognized the fact that there are conceptual links between Innovations specific skills and Entrepreneurial skills. Further ITMVU believes Entrepreneurship is a critical vehicle for the introduction of Innovation. As such embedded both the skills into the curriculum learning in Higher Education.

Innovative & Inclusive Model in Higher Education:

1) Aligned all the University programs to the National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) and adopted UGC-NSQF norms while structuring the Programs, which are level-5 above of NSQF.
2) Employability bridge courses (EBC) and Continuing Profession Education (CPE) are offered at Level 3-6 of NSQF as blended learning programs with online content embedded in weekend/evening/outreach formats.
3) Introduced innovative programs on Mechatronics, Medical Lab Technology, Optometry, Emerging Manufacturing Technologies, Healthcare, Hospitality & Tourism, Banking & Financial Services and Family Business &Entrepreneurship.
4) Introduced an innovative 6-year Engineering program after 10th standard /ITIs into which integrated Skill training in years 2 and 3 leading to a Diploma and later to a Degree with a flexible credit-carry arrangement so that students have options:

  • Exit with Diploma after 3 years
  • Exit with Associate Degree (RMIT University ) after 4th year
  • Graduate with B.Tech Degree after 6 years
  • Go to work full time and come back any time to complete the degree

5) Structured part –time Technical programs for working Engineering Diploma / Certificate holders.

6) Promoted educational programs for Creativity and Innovation, which practices such as inquiry –based projects designed to develop creativity and original thinking (Project based Learning). Introduced evidence based education and created a bank of educational resources through international rubrics by establishing International Linkage and Collaborations within a span of two years of existence of ITMVU. These include the University of Denver and Herzing University, USA for Management programs and RMIT University for Engineering and Vocational Programs. Established 6-months Industry connects internship with the Karvy group for Management students and Tata power for engineering students to get hands on experience.

7) ITMVU also opines that education should remain relevant in the face of rapid changes in society and the national economy. As such introduced the changes in the education to adapt to societal needs and adopted teaching and learning or organizational practices that have been identified to foster the following Skills for Innovation.
a) Subject based skills, which represent knowledge and know how in a particular field.
b) Thinking and creativity, including both higher order skills and creativity cognitive habits. These include competencies in critical faculties, imagination and curiosity.
c) Behavioral and Social skills, including skills such as self-confidence, leadership and management, collaboration and persuasion.

8) Further an Innovative course in “ Human Values and Professional Ethics” has been introduced as a crucial academic input in all the programs. This course is intended to help the students to appreciate the essential synergistic between ‘VALUES’ and ‘SKILLS’ to ensure sustained happiness and prosperity, which are the core aspirations of all human beings.

9) Faculty Development Programs: ITMVU faculties are regularly deputed to external training programs on latest pedagogical developments, such as:
a) Integration Projects and Design into Core Engineering Course: Enhancing Learning and Preparing Professionals by Prof. Bill Oakes, Purdue University.
b) Outcome Based Learning Workshop by Micheal K J Milligan, Executive Director and CEO of ABET.
c) Engineering Projects in Community Services (EPICS) in IEEE workshop by Dr. Saurabh Sinha( VP of IEEE).

Unique Pedagogy used in Teaching-Learning process –Innovative interventions:

1) Project Based Active Learning – Initiating the final year project of each program in the first year of study itself to undertake the same in a phased manner trough out the program to facilitate the Students to come up with new ideas and solutions (Creativity), develop a willingness to question ideas (Critical thinking) and enhance the ability to present new ideas or products to an audience (Communication). The main aim of this initiative is to improve the quality of learning and teaching and to showcase how education could enhance students’ well being and employability in innovative society, with balanced attention towards students’ technical, creative, critical but also social and behavioral skills.

2) Interdisciplinary Project in Community Development (Group Project) – Group of students encouraged researching the area at an intersection of environment, education and civic problems to deliver key insights on ground data to develop them as Next Generation problem solvers. This is aimed to develop the following attributes in students.
a) Ability to think critically, to solve complex problems.
b) Interact with others.
c) Innovate.
d) Learn how to learn.
e) Perseverance and overcome failures.

3) Cross – Cultural Experience & Communication: With the established International Collaborations/Links, a Bank of Educational Recourses included an International rubric, a set of pedagogical activities and lesson plans and examples of students work showcasing how students demonstrate creative and critical thinking skills at different ages and domains. The internationally rubric through IUCEE-SPEED activities articulated explicit developmental and progression standards for specific levels of Higher Education in creative and critical thinking skills, besides providing Cross-cultural experience and communication. This facilitated Teachers and Students to develop these habits of minds and assess their progress formatively by better understanding what to look for.

4) Evidence based Innovation – Measuring the efforts of the interventions on Creativity, Technical skills as well as on Behavioral and Social skills at periodical intervals. With robust quasi- experimental research design, promoted the rigorous monitoring of innovative practices so that they are enhanced, adjusted to and scaled up to different context at different phases of Innovation process.

5) Application of Digital technologies – Innovative pedagogic models, for example based on gaming, online laboratories and real time assessment. Simulations such as remote or virtual online laboratories (Business Simulation Lab), providing relatively low-cost flexible access to experiential learning. E learning, open educational resources and massive open online courses (Moodle), mainly aimed at autonomous learners. ITM Vocational University being its consortium member of IUCEE, facilitates all the Faculty members and Students to derive the benefit of webinars organized by the consortium thrice in a week on Engineering Education development. IUCEE (Indo Universal Collaboration for Engineering Education) is a program at the University of Massachusetts, Lo Well, USA aimed at improving the quality and global relevance of Engineering Education in USA and India through collaboration between Engineering Colleges in both the countries.

6) Cross – cutting skills, Social initiatives, and Personal pursuits- The curriculum optional learning on pursuits like, Music, Sports, crafts, etc. The student events like, Litmus, SPEED, Social initiatives etc., which are designed to improve Problem solving, Leadership and team management skills. Further initiated Social Activities like Medical Camp, Vanamhotsav, Swatch Bharat etc.

7) Exposure to latest development in Technology: First year students of the ITM Vocational University are mandated to attend regular lecture series held at the Vadodara Innovation Council. Different eminent scientists like Mr. N K Gupta, Ex Director, ISRO and many more give this lecture series. These series held on the second Sunday of every month. Selected students are also being sent to the workshop held at different IITs, all over India, to enable them to gain knowledge on latest development in Technology, such as:
a) Augmented Reality
b) Cisco Networking
c) Automobiles& IC Engines
d) Bridge Design
e) Cloud Computing
f) Android App. Development
g) Ethical Hacking/ Cyber Security

The Innovative interventions have been made ever since the inception of the ITM Vocational University (ITMVU) in the Year 2014 with an objective of developing the students as Change Leaders, Next Generation Problem Solvers and Entrepreneurs to contribute to the Society and Economy. These Interventions started yielding results within a span of two years.

With the skills and talent obtained on Project based active learning and Interdisciplinary Projects in community development, our students won several prizes at the state level, National level, Asia level competitions and slotted for next level competitions in the month of Nov 2016. Many of these projects are addressing the environmental and civic problems.

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How would you like to see India’s Educational System
Unfurling and playing a lead role in
defining & determining the 
national discourse ?

In India, skill development through formal education is in transition. The National Skill Development policy 2015 is trying to bring in convergence of skill development through formal education in a mission mode both at State and Central level. The policy envisaged new Institutions and new Instruments to align all formal, vocational education and skill training with National Skill Qualification Framework (NSQF) by December 2018.

The National Skills Qualifications Framework (NSQF) is a competency-based framework that organizes all qualifications according to a series of levels of knowledge, skills and aptitude. These levels, graded from one to ten, are defined in terms of learning outcomes, which the learner must possess regardless of whether they are obtained through formal, non-formal or informal learning. NSQF in India was notified on 27th December 2013. All other frameworks, including the NVEQF (National Vocational Educational Qualification Framework) released by the Ministry of HRD, stand superseded by the NSQF.

Under NSQF, the learner can acquire the certification for competency needed at any level through formal, non-formal or informal learning. In that sense, the NSQF is a quality assurance framework. Presently, more than 100 countries have, or are in the process of developing national qualification frameworks.

The NSQF is anchored at the National Skill Development Agency (NSDA) and is being implemented through the National Skills Qualifications Committee (NSQC), which comprises of all key stakeholders. The NSQC’s functions amongst others include approving NOSs/QPs, approving accreditation norms, prescribing guidelines to address the needs of disadvantages sections, reviewing inter-agency disputes and alignment of NSQF with international qualification frameworks.

Specific outcomes expected from implementation of NSQF are:

i. Mobility between vocational and general education by alignment of degrees with NSQF
ii. Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL), allowing transition from non-formal to organized job market
iii. Standardized, consistent, nationally acceptable outcomes of training across the country through a national quality assurance framework
iv. Global mobility of skilled workforce from India, through international equivalence of NSQF
v. Mapping of progression pathways within sectors and cross-sector ally
vi. Approval of NOS/QPs as national standards for skill training.

As against the above expectations, it is observed that mapping of all the existing qualifications is still work in progress. Mapping beyond level-4 is not attempted in full scale yet. Vocational University/Skill University in the higher education space emerged in the meanwhile under UGC. As such there is a regulatory ambiguity to allow online learning, flexible learning, blended learning in the higher education space. University under UGC is competent enough to develop NOS/QPs and Assessment and Certification. As such in the higher education space, exemption to seek approval / Certification from third party/SSC need to be made to Vocational University. Lest, those Vocational universities be declared as Institution of National Importance to ensure desired speed of the Skill Development as envisaged in the policy. However Vocational universities need to be reinvented in partnership with teachers and so that education prepares people for the learning society. Retrain teachers and engage parents so that they can contribute to an education system that develops the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes for intercultural dialogue, critical thinking, problem solving and creative projects. Give strong emphasis to design in education at different levels.

1) Nurture creativity in a lifelong learning process where theory and practice go hand in hand.
2) Make universities places where students and teachers engage in creative thinking and learning by doing.
3) Transform workplaces into learning sites.
4) Promote a strong, independent and diverse cultural that can sustain intercultural dialogue.
5) Promote scientific research to understand the world, improve people’s lives and simulated innovation.
6) Promote design processes, thinking and tools, understanding the needs, emotions, aspirations and abilities of users.
7) Support business innovation that contributes to prosperity and sustainability.
With these measures Vocational Universities can contribute to national discourse on Skill India, Start Up India, Stand up India etc.

 

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Your candid evaluation of the
direction & demeanor of the 
current disposition and
your objective critiques & suggestions 
for improvement across the spectrum.

In the current age of technological change and where automation puts some workers of being substituted by machines, these skill gaps will widen unless education systems and employers help students hone their ability to think critically, to solve complex problems, to interact with others, innovate, learn how to learn and to persevere and overcome failure. These are the skills that set these candidates apart, leading them to quality employment and shielding them from job losses triggered by computerization. In a world where an average person can expect to have eight to ten jobs per career, mastering crosscutting skills will be an essential to staying employable.

Even during periods of economic growth and job creation in developing countries, many of these jobs remain unfilled and identifying the right candidates becomes true challenge amid high unemployment because education system, including higher education institutions, are not keeping with the needs of the job market.

A better idea would be for our education system to find ways to help develop cross-cutting skills like problem solving, teamwork and leadership which have universal value – in short, a system that prioritises skills over credentials. Transitioning to this will be hard for some. For instance, in many developing countries like India, rote learning and memorisation are firmly anchored in the culture and a college degree is seen as ‘the Holi Grail’, so adapting to a more trans-disciplinary, flexible, skills-based model will require conscious efforts.

Universities also need to rethink their role in teaching the kinds of skills graduates need in the ‘New Economy’. Furthermore, they must reconsider their approach towards working with partners, given the growing trend towards greater specilisation as a result of the unbundling of teaching and learning from the campus. Going forward, Universities might need to enter strategic partnerships with corporate partners to better fulfill their mission.

Innovation in education, as in all sectors of the economy and society, is imperative to bring about qualitative changes, in contrast to the mere quantitative expansion that we have seen so far. This will lead to more efficiency and improved outcomes in quality and equity of learning opportunities. However simply providing technology or making people aware of innovative practice is unlikely to change anything. Greater care in management change, perhaps through adoption of design thinking might hold greater likelihood of impact and points again to the importance of supporting communities and networks to take practice forward. Another tension lay in the tendency to view groups as homogenous. Students are students, teachers are teachers, commercial companies are companies, and policy makers are policy makers. Just as there seems to be increasing recognition of the benefits of personalisation for students’ learning, so we should look at how to engage each of these other groups and the constraints or freedom within which they work.

Solutions to each of these challenges probably lie firstly, in the development of each of us as life-long and life-wide learners and implementers. Secondly we must take steps to develop the conversation between industry, governments and education professionals is right step towards setting the circumstances in which collaborations can develop. Providing mechanism for networking and development of communities of practices is another way in which collaborations might be assisted.

Further suggestions for action includes:

Recognising the importance and strength of learning from times off line as well as times on line.

Providing the circumstances in which government, industry and education can effectively “speed-date” and match potential solutions with challenges to be addressed.

Addressing the relevance of learning to life and student’s future success and not presuming relevance – associated with “unlearning” some of the practices we have developed.

Development of culture of appropriate risk taking and learning from failure rather than viewing failure as purely a fault.
Creating a shared resource of vignettes demonstrating the practices that are successful through Government-education-industry collaboration.

Markets for skills, enterprise and small businesses can have positive societal impacts by providing opportunity and hope to sections of the community that might have been excluded from traditional success.

Ensure that the creative energy and ideas of children and students are engaged and supported.

Education should be about improving the quality of people’s lives and to do so we must better understand what young people want to learn and why. How can we create systems that allow pupils to self-organise to achieve their chosen learning?

We need teachers and teacher teams to provide deep insights into pedagogy, the best ways to manage groups of students, the methods of engagement and motivation, ways to engage students with relevant and powerful problem solving. Teachers design curriculum, new assignments and share insights into evolving pedagogy.

We also need governments and policy makers to ensure laws, regulations and policies that keep our sights on the public good, ensure safety and security, and promote rather than hinder innovation.

 

 

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